The Maldives is a unitary, sovereign, independent democratic republic based on the principles of Islam. The evolution and development of the system of government and administration in the Maldives shows long standing, unwritten constitutional principles accepted by the people.
The governance of the Maldives was, for the first time, subjected to a set of written laws during the reign of Sultan Muhammad Shamsuddeen. On 19 March 1931 a Council was appointed and entrusted with the mandate of drafting the first Constitution of the Maldives. The Constitution that was formulated by the Council was proclaimed and implemented on 22 December 1932. The rights of the citizens, equality and justice and the rights of the people to live in peace and security was for the first time enshrined in the Constitution. The Constitution also articulated administrative reforms towards improving the life of the people.
Several amendments were subsequently brought to the first Constitution. The Constitution was, however, repealed on 31 January 1940 on finding that it was unsuitable to the circumstances that prevailed in the country at the time. A new Constitution was formulated and implemented on 23 April 1942. In 1952, the Maldives became a republic upon affirmation by a referendum and the Constitution was changed to a republican Constitution. However due to a change brought to the governing of the State the monarchy was restored on 7 March 1954, and the Constitution of the Maldives was once again revised. In 1968 a new referendum was held during the reign of Muhammad Fareed, and for the second time a republican form of government was adopted by the Maldives on 11 November 1968. The Constitution of the Maldives has since then been in use and has been thrice amended as provided therein.
During the first year of the Presidency of Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, on 31 December 1978, the People's Majlis passed a Bill providing for the amendment of the Constitution.
The President convened the People's Majlis on 29 November 1980 and charged the Special Majlis with the responsibility of amending the Constitution. The Constitution which was adopted by the Special Majlis and amended as deemed necessary, was assented to by President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom on 27 November 1997. The amended Constitution came into force on 1 January 1998.
he President's Office was established on 11 November 1968 with the adoption of the Second Republic in 1968. The President's Office administer functions and activities that arise from the duties and responsibilities vested in the President by the country's Constitution and the laws.
Sections of the President's Office and their functions:-
The Cabinet Division was established to initiate policy, coordinate the activities of the cabinet and to provide technical advice and secretarial support to the cabinet.
Political Affairs Division
The Political Affairs Division was established to oversee the development of political reforms that the President has envisioned for Maldives, monitor the implementation of the Roadmap for Reform and assist the President in carrying out his responsibilities with regard to the People's Majlis, the People's Special Majlis, presidential elections, parliamentary elections, public referendums, protection of the Constitution and with regard to his role as Head of State and Head of Government.
Secretariat for the Reform Agenda
Unit for the People's and People's Special Majlis
Elections and Political Affairs Unit
Public Service Division
Public Service Division was established to carryout the functions of establishing and abolishing government ministries, departments, offices and other such agencies, formulating their mandates, revising their names and mandates as and when necessary, dealing with appointment, transfer and termination of government employees, determining the remunerations and benefits entitled to government employees, formulating personnel policies and guidelines, and reforming and modernising the public service.
Additionally, the Public Service Training Institute functions under the Public Service Division, and has a mandate of providing the required skills and training for public sector employees, in order to facilitate the administrative reform process and improve service delivery.
Presidential Protocol Division
The Presidential Protocol Division was established to keep the President's Secretariat and for the purposes of administering the responsibilities of The President's Office with regard to presidential appointments, visits, and meetings and functions held by and attended by the President.
Foreign Protocol Unit
Local Protocol Unit
Monitoring and Evaluation Division
The Monitoring and Evaluation Division was established to monitor and evaluate the progress of the government policies and projects, and to provide technical advice and secretarial support to the establishment and maintenance of Executive Management Information System.
Public Relations Section
The function of the Public Relations Section is to process letters and cases put forward to the President by individual citizens and private entities and process requests for pardon and requests for commuting of sentences. The section also administers the work related to presidential awards and public service awards.
Press and Publication Section
The function of the Press and Publication Section is to prepare all news releases by the President's Office, and prepare speeches, addresses, statements and interviews given by the President. All publications of the President's Office are administered by this section.
Corporate Management Services Section
The function of the Corporate Management Services Section is to manage human resources of the office, provides IT solutions, plan and coordinate the allocation of mandate and functions of the office, oversee the coordination of activities, and manage the provision of general services.
Budget and Property Management Section
The function of the Budget and Property Management Section is to manage the budget, accounts, property, maintenance needs, construction requirements, procurement and housekeeping needs.